Henry III (1207-1272) was the eldest son of King John, and a grandson of Henry II. He came to the throne in 1216, but did not rule until he came of age in 1227.
Henry was a fickle tyrant who surrounded himself with favourites from other countries. The English nobles revolted against his rule and the foreign influences in his court. They forced Henry to grant the Provisions of Oxford, which transferred governing powers to a committee of barons. Later, Henry broke the agreement and raised an army. However, he was defeated and captured at the battle of Lewes in 1264. Simon de Montfort, leader of the reform party, then governed England until 1265. Edward ruled the country during the rest of Henry's lifetime.