The history of Wales is rich and complex, spanning thousands of years. Ancient Wales was inhabited by Celtic tribes and later became part of the Roman Empire. In the 13th century, Wales was annexed by England under King Edward, who built castles, such as Caernarfon, Conwy, and Harlech as part of his campaign to conquer Wales and suppress the Welsh culture and language and exert English control. The 19th century saw a cultural revival, with efforts to preserve the Welsh language and heritage. Today, Wales maintains a distinct cultural identity, with a strong emphasis on its language and traditions.